Terms Q-R


QCD (Quality, Cost Delivery)

The three super-ordinate goals of Quality, Cost, and Delivery at the heart of KAIZEN Strategy.

  1. Quality: Although there are many definitions offered for this term, two are of key importance. 1) The first has to do with customer satisfaction and can be stated, "Any product or service that continually delights the customer." 2) The second definition refers to the internal processes of an organization that serve customers. Quality is "the continual elimination of waste in, and improvement of, every process." It is only when Quality is understood in this latter sense that companies can deliver higher quality, lower cost, and on-time delivery simultaneously while meeting expectation and requirements, stated and un-stated, of the customer.
  2. Quality at the Source: Prevention versus detection. 
  3. Quality Control Circles:  A small group that voluntarily performs process improvement activities within the workplace.


First One of the seven KAIZEN Concepts. The concept states that if either delivery or cost leads quality in efforts to improve, no improvement will take place in the long run.


Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

1) A system whereby customer requirements, known as "true quality characteristics" are translated into designing characteristics, known as "counterpart characteristics", and then deployed into such sub-systems as components, parts and production processes to develop new products precisely designed to meet customer needs.

2) One of the Seven KAIZEN Systems.

3) Using a cross-functional team to reach consensus that final engineering specification of a product are in accord with the voice of the customer.

4) A visual decision-making procedure for multi-skilled project teams which develops a common understanding of the voice of the customer and a consensus on the final engineering specifications of the product that has the commitment of the entire team. NOTE: QFD integrates the perspectives of team members from different disciplines, ensures that their efforts are focused on resolving key trade-offs in a consistent manner against measurable performance targets for the product, and deploys these decisions through successive levels of detail. The use of QFD eliminates expensive backflows and rework as projects near launch. 


Queue Time

The time a product spends in a line awaiting the next design, order-processing, or fabrication step. 


Quick and Easy Kaizen

A Kaizen event that is initiated and implemented by the proceeding owner. The improvement generally only affects the person who initiated its area. 


Quick Changeover

The ability to change tooling and fixtures rapidly (usually minutes), so multiple products can be run on the same machine. (See Single-Minute Exchange of Dies- SMED)



Radar Chart

A circular chart with ten rays and spokes, one for each of the three principles and seven concepts of Kaizen - used as a diagnostic tool to measure on a scale of zero (at the hub) to ten (at the rim) the degree of consistency with Kaizen principles and concepts exhibited by an organization.


Real Value

Attributes and features of a product or service that, in the eyes of customers, are worth paying for. [See: Value Added, Non-Value Added]



The engine that drives Time-Based Competition. To gain speed, firms must apply the principles of re-engineering to rethink and redesign every process and move it closer to the customer.


Resource Activation

Using a resource regardless of whether throughput is increased. [See: Resource Utilization]


Resource Utilization

Using a resource in a way that increases throughput . [See: Resource Activation]



Management A style of management usually associated with controls, performance, product or "bottom line" considerations, rewards and/or punishments.



Matching tooling and equipment to the job and space requirements of lean production.


Rolled -Throughput Yield

The geometric sum of the yields of operations linked in a process. 



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